To assess joy, the latest Subjective Joy Measure (SHS) was applied

To assess joy, the latest Subjective Joy Measure (SHS) was applied


Usually the one-dimensional questionnaire contained four products ranked with the good seven-point Likert measure (range: 1–7; measure accuracy: Cronbach’s alpha = .82).

The brand new Fulfillment having Life Measure (SWLS) was applied determine around the globe life pleasure . The 5 pieces of this-dimensional survey had been rated into an effective eight-area Likert level (step 1 = firmly disagree; 7 = strongly concur; scale accuracy: Cronbach’s alpha = .92) .

Determine strength, the main one-dimensional German Resilience Size eleven (RS-11) was used [56,57]. Users ranked 11 circumstances to your an effective 7-area Likert scale (1 = disagree; 7 = agree; level accuracy: Cronbach’s leader = .91).

Subjective experienced otherwise forecast assistance on social media is actually mentioned with the that-dimensional German Questionnaire Social Service (F-SozU K-14) composed of fourteen facts rated with the a beneficial 5-point Likert size (step 1 = false; 5 = true; size precision: Cronbach’s alpha = .94).

Narcissism was counted into the 13 force-choices format bits of the newest Narcissistic Identity Inventory thirteen (NPI-13; size precision: Cronbach’s leader = .82) .

The new characteristics of the “Huge Five” was basically reviewed to your Big Four Collection 10 (BFI-10) . The latest ten factors were rated on the an excellent 5-area Likert level (step 1 = differ firmly; 5 = agree strongly). Respectively, two factors belonged to a single of the five bills extraversion (level precision: Cronbach’s alpha = .89), agreeableness (Cronbach’s alpha = .74), conscientiousness (Cronbach’s alpha = .82), neuroticism (Cronbach’s leader = .86), and you may transparency (Cronbach’s leader = .79).

To measure the fresh participants’ self-esteem, this new Italian language version of brand new Solitary-Item Mind-Respect Scale (SISE) was applied . Professionals had been questioned to help you rates to your a beneficial 5-area Likert measure simply how much the newest declaration “We have higher worry about-respect.” applied to on their own (step 1 = far from the truth regarding me personally; 5 = best shown off me personally).

The Despair Anxiety Stress Balances 21 (DASS-21) was indeed put on level anxiety, anxiety and stress episodes [62,63]. The whole survey consisted of three reliable seven-product balances, which have been rated into 4-section Likert scales (0 = didn’t affect myself anyway; step 3 = used on me a whole lot or in most cases; level precision: depression: Cronbach’s alpha = .83, anxiety: Cronbach’s alpha = .78, stress: Cronbach’s leader = .87) [64,65].

In addition, participants was indeed asked about the social media explore. Earliest, Web sites fool around with are counted (“How many times could you use the internet overall?”). In the next step, the newest SNSs use try reviewed (“How often do you really play with social media sites?”). The clear answer for issues received to your good eight-area Likert measure (0 = never; step one = below once a month; dos = a few times 1 month; step three = weekly; cuatro = several times weekly; 5 = once a day; 6 = over and over again a day). Upcoming, users were asked whether they become a member of the SNSs Facebook, Facebook, Instagram, Tumblr, Google+ and other system (0 = no; step 1 = yes).

Statistical analyses

The fresh new Statistical Package on the Societal Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was applied for everybody analytical analyses [66,67]. First, brand new means of brand new investigated characteristics and you will psychological state details were compared anywhere between Facebook users and you will Twitter non-pages by the calculating multivariate investigation away from variance (MANOVA). After the Steven’s recommendation to not ever play with over ten mainly based parameters in one single MANOVA, i held one or two MANOVAs. The original analysis included mind-esteem, narcissism additionally the “Huge Five” qualities. Because Box’s take to is actually low-extreme, i used Pillai’s shadow just like the a beneficial multivariate sample. The second study incorporated the fresh mental health details lifetime fulfillment, strength, personal service, happiness, depression, anxiety, and you can worry. Here, Box’s take to try tall, for this reason, the fresh Hotelling’s trace statistics were utilized. Yet not, all four multivariate screening showed equivalent performance.

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